Under controlled natural conditions, traumatic insemination was frequent and temporally restricted. We show for the first time, to our knowledge, that traumatic insemination results in i last-male sperm precedence, ii suboptimal remating frequencies for the maintenance of female fertility, and iii reduced longevity and reproductive success in females. Experimental females did not receive indirect benefits from multiple mating.
Paternity was assigned by counting fertile and sterile eggs see ref. There was no difference in the size of animals allocated to the experimental groups females: As Eisemann et al.
We conclude that traumatic insemination is probably a coercive male copulatory strategy that results in a sexual conflict of interests.
By contrast, the amount of wounding and wound repair in response to piercing is not mediated by the spermalege, nor are the action of seminal fluids. Studies of the reproductive physiology of Cimicidae Hemiptera.
This idea remains to be tested, as does the question of why the proposed spermalege-associated amelioration of the cost of traumatic insemination is incomplete in C.
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They found females use sexual mimicry as a way to avoid traumatic insemination.